Science in Ukraine
Eminent names and scientific schools
In the twentieth century, a number of renowned
scientific schools were established in Ukraine dealing with problems
of geochemistry and the natural sciences (V. Vernadsky), mechanics
(S. Tymoshenko), oriental studies (A. Krymsky), microbiology (D.
Zabolotny), biology (0. Bohomolets), chemistry (L. Pysar/hcvsky),
electrical welding and bridge-building (Ye. Paton), physics (M.
Boholiubov), cybernetics (V. Glushkov), space engineering (M. Yanhel),
etc. Ukrainian scientists and scholars can boast major achievements,
such as the artificial nuclear reaction to split the lithium nucleus;
production of heavy water; a procedure for automatically welding
lank bodies; the Europe's first computer; new areas pioneered in
metallurgy: electric metallurgy with electroslag, plasma-arc, and
plasma electron-beam remelting, development of unique rockets and
Ukraine's Scientific Potential
Science is a major factor allowing Ukraine to be ranked among the
world's advanced countries in the twenty-first century. By the beginning
of the year 2000, Ukraine's scientific potential of Ukraine comprised
1,506 scientific institutions and organizations. Of these, 289 were
in the academic sector, 160 were institutions of higher learning,
while 964 belonged to the industry, and 93 to the factory sector.
126,000 persons are directly engaged in research and engineering
activities. These include 4,132 doctors and over 20,000 candidates
of sciences. Six state academies are leaders in Ukrainian science:
the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukrainian Academy of
Agricultural Science, Academy of Medical Science, Academy of Jurisprudence,
the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, and the Academy of Arts. The
Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine is responsible for
the governmental management of scientific and scholarly activities.
The Coming Future
Ukraine is proud to comply with world scientific standards in mathematics,
mechanics, physics, computer science, materials science, and a number
of other trends directly related to the manufacture of the high
tech science-intensive products increasingly demanded by foreign
scientific institutions and industrial firms. For instance, a unique
pilot plant has been built, which simulates the effect of outer
space on spacecraft. Germany and China have purchased this plant
and the European Space Agency is using it for research purposes.
Together with Pratt and Whitney, a US aerospace firm, the Institute
of Electrical Welding is developing a procedure for producing new
materials using the technique of high-speed electron-beam evaporation
and condensation of matter in a vacuum. The Institute of Monocrystals,
a research and technical concern, supplies scintillation crystals
as well as sapphire implants and tools to research centres in the
US, Japan and Switzerland for neurosurgical and ophthalmological
applications. Researchers at the Institute for Cryobiology and Cryomcdicine
have arranged production of competitive biological preparations
on request by many foreign firms.
During the years of independence, a basic advance
has been made by Ukraine in the social sciences and humanities.
This contributed much to the nation's rethinking of its centuries-long
path in the historical and cultural development and today's position
of Ukraine in the context of the international and European civilizing
process. This is the fifteenth year that the Ukrainian scholars
have been involved in studying the scientific, technological, economic,
medical, and social aspects with the goal of mitigating the consequences
of the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster, turning the devastated
Unit 4 into an ecologically sound system, and establishing an international
test field within the affected area for investigating the impact
of radiation on the environment.
Ukrainian science is making successful efforts
to be integrated into the international scientific community. Each
year dozens of monographs by Ukrainian scholars are published abroad.
Many Ukrainian scientific journals are translated into foreign languages.
Under the aegis of UNESCO, an international research and educational
centre for information technologies and systems as well as international
chairs of cryobiology and physiology have been set up in Ukraine.
Established in 1993, the International Association of Academies
of Sciences is playing an important role to stimulate integration
processes among Academies of Sciences of CIS countries. The National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine headed by Academician Borys Paton,
its world-renowned President, remains the stronghold of these research
Ukrainian Space Industry
Young independent Ukraine confidently became one of the world space
states owing to its space research and production potential.
In February 1992, National Space Agency of Ukraine
(NSAU) was established to implement state space activities policy.
Its control sphere includes about 30 production enterprises, research
organizations and design offices. The enterprises of space industry
gain great experience in development and production of modern launch
vehicles, spacecraft, engines, control and telemeter system. New
materials and technologies are being phased in, and some of them
have no counterparts. Space goods and services export increased
from year to year.
Currently, space industry restructuring is being
prepared and implemented to assure further development of enterprises
in market environment. The restructuring provides forming of favorable
business and investment climate, advance in rates of science intensive
production output, development of new competitive technics, increase
the quality and efficiency of production. It is planned to corporatize
and incorporate state-owned companies, possibilities for establishment
of international investment fund are also considered.
So, Ukrainian space industry enters into new millenium
introducing market innovation system, which is favorable for improving
investment climate and attracting investors to mutual beneficial
cooperation within joint commercial projects.